More Gerald Posner Plagiarism in Miami Babylon, From New Times, PBS, and Many Others
Back on March 16, Riptide broke the news that South Beach-based author Gerald Posner's latest book, Miami Babylon, had stolen eight passages from Frank Owen's 2003 work Clubland.
Posner had already resigned as chief investigative reporter at the Daily Beast after Slate's Jack Shafer busted him for lifting sentences from the Miami Herald, Texas Lawyer, and others in his work for Tina Brown's website.
What will Posner blame this time? Because New Times and doctoral student Gregory Gelembiuk have now uncovered what look like 16 new instances of plagiarism in Miami Babylon, as well as eight quotes that appear to be altered or used out of context in the book.
Gelembiuk also pointed us toward three apparent instances of plagiarism in Posner's Daily Beast work that weren't reported in Slate's earlier stories.
Posner hasn't responded to multiple calls or emails to comment on our story, which you can read in full here. Click through for a full accounting of all the new problems in Miami Babylon that we've uncovered.
In each case detailed below, we've highlighted the original text first, followed by the apparently plagiarized passage in Miami Babylon.
Plagiarism in Miami Babylon
1) "Beating Whitey," by Francisco Alvarado, Miami New Times, Feb. 6, 2003:
The mayor was convicted, released in 1992, and elected mayor again in 1994.
In August 1995, however, Don's relationship with Barry burned him. The city council, in a rare move against Barry, balked at a $48 million plan to lease two office buildings from Peebles.
Miami Babylon, page 290:
He was convicted, released in 1992, and elected mayor again in 1994.
In August 1995, Peebles' close relationship with Barry burned him. The D.C. city council rejected Barry's no-bid $48 million plan to lease two office buildings from Peebles.
2) "Beating Whitey," New Times:
"I am a hard-nosed businessman, and I'm not really going to take any bullshit from people just to get along," Don continued.
Miami Babylon, page 296:
"What I am is a hard-nosed businessman, and I don't take any bullshit from people just to get along," counters Peebles.
In 2005, he made the cover of Time magazine as one of the 25 most influential Hispanics in the United States. That same year, The Related Group was recognized as the country's biggest Hispanic-owned business. The University of Miami named its architecture center after Perez.
Miami Babylon, page 372:
In 2005, Perez made the cover of Time as one of the twenty-five most influential Hispanics in America. The Related Group was recognized as the country's biggest Hispanic-owned business. The University of Miami named its architecture center after Perez ...
4) Men's Vogue, "Liquid Smoke," Jan. 2007:
Kramer, confined to a maximum-security federal prison in Indiana after a spectacular failed prison escape by helicopter, pled no contest to ordering his idol's murder for the price of $60,000. The hit man was an ex-pimp from St. Louis named Bobby Young, whose cooperation in the case earned him a reduction in his sentence.
Miami Babylon, page 210:
Kramer, confined to a maximum-security federal prison in Indiana, pled no contest to ordering his idol's murder for $60,000. The hit man was an ex-pimp from St. Louis named Bobby Young, whose cooperation earned him a reduced sentence.
Sonny Crockett -- He drove a Ferrari, wore Versace suits, and lived on a sailboat with his pet alligator Elvis.
Miami Babylon, page 156:
"Sonny" Crockett, the Don Johnson character, drove a Ferrari, wore Versace suits, and lived on a sailboat with his pet alligator, Elvis.
Florida has only had four quarters of declining prices in recent times -- two in 1976 and two in 1994-95, the least of any state, according to the Merrill Lynch study. But it has also had the mother of all U.S. housing crashes, the land bust of the mid-1920s as buyers dried up after an eerily similar property explosion.
Miami Babylon, page 372:
Florida had had only four quarters of declining prices in recent years--two in 1976 and two in 1994-95, the least of any state--it had had the mother of all U.S. housing crashes, the land bust of the mid-1920s, when buyers dried up after a disturbingly similar property explosion.
Cabi Developers erected a fog-strewn jungle complete with fauna -- a Florida panther, baby alligator and squawking parrots.
Miami Babylon, page 368:
Everglades-on-the-Bay, a Biscayne Boulevard condo tower, created a fog-strewn jungle complete with fauna, a Florida panther, a baby alligator, and squawking parrots.
Narrator: Even so, Carl persuaded three partners to join him. They would build the greatest racecourse in the world, he said, and call it the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Opening day, in August, 1909, was a celebration of everything Carl loved -- lighter-than-air balloons, brass bands, and the fastest cars in the world. But as the race got underway, the tar and gravel track began to crumble under the wheels of the race cars.
Jane Fisher: The glorious day he had planned turned into a carnival of death. Cars skidded off the track and burst into flame. I watched Carl's face grow white from my box in the stands.
Narrator: By the time he stopped the race, five people were dead. The newspapers called it a disaster... and questioned whether such races should be allowed in the future. Carl was mortified. He tore up the track, and spent another $100,000 searching for a better surface, eventually repaving it entirely in brick. On Memorial Day, 1911, the Brickyard was ready for a new kind of auto race -- a one day, 500 mile event, with prizes amounting to $25,100. Eighty-seven thousand people paid a dollar apiece to watch the first Indianapolis 500. This time the track held together
Miami Babylon, pages 20 and 21:
Fisher had some wild ideas about how to spend the money. He persuaded three partners to join him in building the world's greatest race track. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in August 1909, with hot-air balloons, large bands, the fastest cars, and a crowd of 12,000. But as the three-day, 300-mile race got under way, the tar and gravel track began crumbling from the heat.
"The glorious day he had planned turned into a carnival of death," wrote his fiancée, Jane. "Cars skidded off the track and burst into flame. I watched Carl's face grow white from my box in the stands." By the time Fisher halted the race, five drivers were dead. Fisher spent $100,000 searching for a better surface and finally repaved the course with 3.5 million recessed bricks. On Memorial Day 1911, the "brickyard" was ready for a new Fisher extravaganza--a one-day, 500-mile event, with $25,100 in prizes. Eighty-seven thousand people paid a dollar each to watch the first Indianapolis 500. This time the track surface held.
Condo-hotel sales let a hotel pass most of its debt and operating costs onto unit owners while raising millions of dollars in cash up front.
Although Schrager faced financial challenges in recent years -- including a year in bankruptcy protection for a San Francisco hotel and a scramble to refinance about $355 million in debt partly secured by the Delano -- he says his portfolio performs well enough to raise plenty of cash from lenders.
Miami Babylon, page 370:
Condo-hotel sales let a hotel pass most of its debt and operating costs onto unit owners while raising millions of dollars in cash up front."It was a win-win for any developer who had land zoned for a hotel," said one broker. Although Schrager had had financial challenges in recent years--including his San Francisco hotel, the Clift, in bankruptcy protection and a frantic scramble to refinance $355 million in debt--he claimed his portfolio was strong enough to raise the necessary cash.
In the Twenties and Thirties, the Biscaya on Miami Beach was a Florida vacation fantasy come true: red-tile roof, ornate loggias in the style of a Mediterranean palace, a grand stairway leading to an elegant high-ceilinged ballroom that featured dancing to big-band music, guest rooms overlooking the Intracoastal Waterway. Built in 1925 near the intersection of West Avenue and what is now called the MacArthur Causeway, the ten-story, 242-room structure was one of a string of luxury hotels erected by the famed Carl Fisher.
The Biscaya's glory days came to an end in 1941, when the army converted it into a barracks. After the war, it was run for a time as a retirement home, but by the Eighties it had become an abandoned, crumbling wreck. Owing to its location outside the Art Deco District, the building never received historic designation. City officials eventually declared the vacant structure unsafe and ordered that it be torn down. Preservationists howled in protest. "The Biscaya could be to Miami Beach what the Biltmore now is to Coral Gables A a glorious monument to civic pride," wrote Beth Dunlop, then the Miami Herald's architecture critic. "Restored, the Biscaya could tell the world that Miami Beach, too, is a place proud of its past, an enlightened seaside city. "
Miami Babylon, page 215:
Over the same period, preservationists lost a long-running battle over the 242-room Biscaya. Built in 1925, it was a Carl Fisher original, a Florida vacation fantasy come true: red tile roof loggias styled after Mediterranean palazzos and a grand stairway that led to an ornate ballroom. The Biscaya was on West Avenue near Fifth Street, one block outside the historic district. The U.S. Army had converted it into barracks during World War II, and it became a retirement home in the 1970s, before being shuttered as an abandoned wreck in the early eighties. When city officials declared the vacant structure unsafe and ordered that it be torn down, preservationists howled.
"The Biscaya could be to Miami Beach what the Biltmore is to Coral Gables: a glorious monument to civic pride," wrote Beth Dunlop. "Restored, the Biscaya could tell the world that Miami Beach, too, is a place proud of its past, an enlightened seaside city."
Small buildings with Art Deco features went up along the lower end of Ocean Drive and throughout South Pointe. Some gems still stand, such as the Century and Nemo hotels, but many others, such as the Corsair Hotel at the foot of Ocean Drive, have already fallen victim to the wrecking ball.
Miami Babylon, page 245 :
South Pointe had some Art Deco gems such as the Century and Nemo Hotels, but others like the Corsair had fallen to the wrecking ball.
12) Miami New Times, Dec. 11, 1991:
For one thing, the city's current zoning code places no height restrictions along the waterfront. And for another, the economics of development encourages high-rises along the water
Miami Babylon, page 245:
A major problem was that the city's zoning code placed no height restrictions along the waterfront and developer economics encouraged high-rises.
13) Miami New Times, Dec. 11, 1991:
Critics fear the seemingly inevitable big-time waterfront development will effectively wall off the ocean and bay from the rest of the neighborhood
Miami Babylon, page 245:
Neighborhood activists feared more large projects like South Pointe Tower would wall off the ocean and bay from the rest of the neighborhood.
For more than an hour Peebles had been going through an elaborate song and dance routine, presenting video clips, pointing to detailed charts, even wheeling out several Miami ministers to offer up testimonials on behalf of his plans to drastically slash the amount of rent his resort would pay to the city government.
Miami Babylon, page 353:
Peebles presented video clips and detailed charts, and even produced several Miami ministers to offer up testimonials on behalf of his philanthropic work for Miami's black churches.
Commissioner Richard Steinberg continued on that note, accusing Peebles of playing a "race game" by betting that the Beach was terrified of revisiting the black boycott, afraid of "the headlines when it files suit to collect on the rent that you have not been paying."
Commissioner José Smith, though much more muted in his criticism, also made it clear he wasn't willing to turn what was originally a sweetheart deal into a $40 million giveaway.
Yet for all this Sturm und Drang, a curious thing happened as commissioners Matti Bower, Simon Cruz, Garcia, and Mayor Dermer took their turns speaking. Each bent over backward to agree with both sides. Peebles had been wronged, and somehow so had the Beach....
Bower, Cruz, Garcia, and Dermer are all up for re-election. And Peebles has made little secret of his intention to pour cash into the campaigns of those who support him
Miami Babylon, page 354:
Fellow commissioner Richard Steinberg accused Peebles of playing a "race game" by betting that the Beach was afraid of "the headlines when it files suit to collect on the rent that you have not been paying."
Commissioner Jose Smith made it clear he wasn't willing to turn what was already a sweetheart deal into a $40 million giveaway.
Yet the surprises came from Matti Bower, Simon Cruz, Luis Garcia, and Mayor Dermer. They argued that Peebles had been wronged, and somehow so had the Beach. All four faced reelection, and Peebles made little secret of his intention, once again, to pour cash into the campaigns of those who supported him.
16) Ocean Drive:
Developers had avoided South Pointe because they expected it would entail costly litigation to push through zoning changes and costly environmental cleanup operations on sites that once housed an oil refinery, a gasoline-storage facility, a dog track, dry-cleaning operations and a meat factory.
Miami Babylon, page 264:
Developers had avoided the area largely because they anticipated expensive litigation to push through zoning changes and costly environmental cleanup operations on sites of a small oil refinery, a gasoline storage facility, a dog track, dry cleaning operations, and a meat factory.
The following eight quotes in Miami Babylon appear to have been altered. All instances were found by Gelembiuk -- the "commentary" explaining the significance of the alteration also comes from Gelembiuk.
Miami Babylon Altered Quotes
1) Miami Babylon page 96:
The 1979 Super Bowl between the Dallas Cowboys and the Pittsburgh Steelers was held in Miami. "Two nights before," recalled Roberts to a reporter, "I've got the whole front line of the Pittsburgh Steelers in my house. They all sat down and: 'Come on, come on. Break the shit out. Break the shit out.' They partied, and they really partied hard. I mean, you have no idea what these guys would go through. I'm saying, 'You guys are going to go out tomorrow and play football?' " 'Yeah, and we're going to win.'"
Original quotes: Miami New Times:
I remember the week of the Super Bowl, when Dallas played Pittsburgh here. Two nights before, I've got the whole front line of the Pittsburgh Steelers in my house. They all sat down and: "Come on, come on. Break the shit out. Break the shit out."
They partied and they really partied hard. I mean, you have no idea what these guys would go through. I'm saying, "You guys are going to go out and play football?"
"Yeah, and we're going to win."
Commentary: The word "tomorrow" has been added, implying the players were doing coke the night before the big game.
2) Miami Babylon, page 93:
"The more layers of insulation you place between the investigator and the ultimate asset, the more difficult it is," says Michael Zeldin, chief of the Anti-Money Laundering/Trade Sanctions team at the international accounting firm Deloitte. "A major part of the problem was that there were so many professionals and public officials who benefited from the drug trade and simply did not see themselves as part of the problem. They were blinded by all the money."
Original quotes: PBS, Frontline
MICHAEL ZELDIN, Asset Forfeiture
We have to trace the asset. We have to prove that the asset was derived from or facilitated or was in some way involved with the illegal activity before we can forfeit it. We can't just forfeit 'cause we want to. And so the more layers of insulation you place between the investigator and the ultimate asset, the more difficult it is....
And I think that there are a lot of people who are privileged who are benefiting from the narcotics trade in small ways or in large ways, who don't see themselves as the problem, but rather see the peddlers of the drugs as the problem, and if they could only get rid of those guys, then we'd have no other problem. I think they're blind.
Commentary: Zeldin never says the precise phrase Posner quotes him as saying.
3) Miami Babylon, page 38:
Two popular bars flourished only blocks from police headquarters. Embarrassed federal officials pressured the police to do something, but hotels, nightclubs, and large restaurants only moved the drinking to "secret rooms," sometimes closed off by nothing more than a curtain divider in the middle of the room. Congressman Fiorello LaGuardia of New York, during a congressional investigation, declared, "There were more prohibition lawbreakers in Florida than any other state." When challenged to prove it, LaGuardia answered, "Oh, I have been down to Miami." It was, he said, the "leakiest spot in the nation."
Original quotes: "Miami's Bootleg Boom"
The United States House of Representatives was entangled in one of its periodic debates over appropriations of funds to enforce national prohibition when Congressman Fiorello LaGuardia from notoriously wet New York announced to his colleagues, "There are more prohibition lawbreakers in Florida than in my state." When challenged to prove it the peppery LaGuardia answered, "Oh, I have been down to Miami." Florida's Representative R. A. Green immediately requested five minutes to answer the New Yorker's charge. In defending his state Representative Green told the House, "Florida is as dry as the Sahara Desert." The Floridian's rebuttal was extremely short. An Associated Press dispatch from Washington explained:
When Representative Green likened his state to the Sahara, he found his words drowned out by laughter and returned to his seat.
In the prohibition decade of the 1920's Florida was a bootlegger's paradise. With its long coastline and liquor supply bases nearby in the Bahamas and Caribbean, Florida won the dubious honor of being one of the leakiest spots on the country's legally dry border.
Commentary: La Guardia never says the phrase Posner attributes to him.
4) Miami Babylon, page 96:
Roberts's partner was Mickey Munday, "a redneck from South Florida," who all told would fly in 38 tons of cocaine from Colombia to Miami.
Original quote: Miami New Times:
Roberts: "So the guy introduces himself. His name is Mickey Munday, and he's like a redneck who's been in Florida his whole life."
Another similar example:
Miami Babylon, page 297:
He dissed Tony Goldman and other developers for having been "afraid of the risks in South Pointe."
Kramer appears undaunted by the huge legal, fiducial, and public-relations obstacles he now faces, "educated developers were afraid of the risks." says Kramer.
Another similar example:
Miami Babylon, page 181:
"I saw South Beach on a trip and I went nuts," said Sparks. "George shows me this building. I thought it was fantastic. The area was coming up. I told him it's what the Grove was ten years ago."
Original quote: Irene Lacher, "Owners of Warsaw Ballroom Hatch Plans for New Club Ovo," Miami Herald, Neighbors Miami Beach, May 1, 1986
"I saw this whole area and went nuts. George shows me this building. I thought it was fantastic. The area was coming up. It's probably what the Grove was," said Sparks.
5) Miami Babylon, page 283:
"You're lucky I don't kill you"">
There are two relevant actual quotes: (1) "I ought to shoot you right now" and (2) "You're lucky that I didn't kill you."
6) Miami Babylon, page 199:
When the city moved in July to bulldoze the pier, South Pointe residents protested at a commission meeting. Fewer than twenty showed up, but they represented a broad cross section. Seventy-one-year-old Emanuel Reiss used to dance and watch burlesque theater on the old pier. "This place was once fabulous. I think tearing it down would be so damn stupid," he said. A sixteen-year-old surfer, Pete Paterella, told the commissioners it was South Florida's best surfing spot and could be made into a tourist attraction. "The pier has always been here," he said. "It has to be just as big a part of the Beach as those Art Deco hotels."
Original article: Paul Shannon, "Beach May Bulldoze Aging Pier," Miami Herald, July 25, 1984
No one asked the surfers, who skateboard on the pier when the waves are low, or Reiss, who walks on it when his hotel business is slow.
"This place once was fabulous. I think tearing it down would be so damn stupid," said Reiss, longtime manager of the Leonard Hotel, 54 Ocean Dr. He pointed up the street to the vacant dog track site. "The city knocked that down because of some plans. So what has been there for years? Nothing."
The 1926 hurricane washed away the tip of the pier that ended in Minsky's Burlesque Theater, according to city historical records. The city eventually cleared the land where casinos once stood and replaced them with a small grassy park and a parking lot.
The pier, battered by waves and weather, decayed along with the rest of South Beach during the decade-long moratorium that was part of the plan to turn the area into a canal-laced "New Venice." Police say the pier became a drug-dealing center during the crime wave that hit the Beach in 1980.
Today, the pier attests to those years. Slogans such as "Cocaine adds life" and "Teenage Wasteland" adorn the broken concrete walls.
But some pier regulars still see its potential.
"The pier has always been here," surfer Paterella said. "It has to be just as big a part of the Beach as those Art Deco hotels."
Commentary: Statements uttered on the beach, near a pier, are modified and transposed into a commission meeting attended by angry protesters.
7) Miami Babylon, page 212:
"I always said this was a battle for territory," says Tony Goldman. "As the good people push out the undesirables, the whole area comes back to life."
Original article: "South Beach at the Turning Point: Old Glories, Can Deco, Disco and Developers Salvage a City," Miami Herald, May 31, 1987, 1A.
"I see this as a battle for territory," said Pieter Bakker, who is restoring the Fairmont Hotel and an adjacent apartment building on Collins Avenue. "As the good people push out the undesirables, the whole area will come back."
8) Miami Babylon, page 364:
By the end of the day, Perez had sold all the units, ranging from $170,000 to $500,000. "That's the new Miami," one of his Related Group sales reps told the disappointed buyers who were turned away.
Original article: Douglas Hanks III, "Plaza on Brickell Condos Stir Up Frenzy," Miami Herald, May 27, 2004
Alicia Cervera, the broker in charge of marketing many Related projects, acknowledged that the Plaza scramble wasn't entirely fueled by future residents. She said, however, that it reflected how the strong draw of South Florida - particularly in Latin America - had reshaped the real estate market.
``I never think 800 people decide to move into the same building in one month,'' Cervera said.
But the market's fast pace is ``no more scary than when you go to your favorite restaurant and find if you don't have a reservation, you're not going to get in,'' she said.``That's the new Miami.''
Commentary: The quote "That's the new Miami" is real, but the context has been altered. The statement was actually made by Alicia Cervera speaking to a reporter, not to disappointed buyers.
Finally, Gelumbiuk also sent Riptide three previously unpublished examples of apparent plagiarism in Posner's work for the Daily Beast.
Daily Beast Plagiarism
At Bagram, according to a written statement provided by a spokesperson for the base, Army Maj. Chris Belcher, the "Military Police receive few reports of alcohol or drug issues." The military has statistics on how many troops failed drug tests, but the best information on long-term addiction comes from the U.S. Veterans Administration. The VA is the world's largest provider of substance abuse services, caring for more than 350,000 veterans per year, of whom about 30,000 are being treated for opiate addiction. Only preliminary information for Iraq and Afghanistan is available, however, and veterans of those conflicts are not yet showing up in the stats. According to the VA's annual "Yellowbook" report on substance abuse, during Fiscal Year 2006, fewer than 9,000 veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) sought treatment for substance abuse of all kinds at the VA; the report did not specify how many were treated for opiate abuse.
Experts think it could be a decade before the true scope of heroin use in Iraq and Afghanistan is known. Dr. Jodie Trafton, a healthcare specialist with the VA's Center for Health Care Evaluation in Palo Alto, Calif., says it takes five or 10 years after a conflict for veterans to enter the system in significant numbers. The VA has recently seen a surge in cases from the first U.S. war in Iraq. "We're just starting to get a lot of Gulf War veterans," she explains. For the first few years after a conflict, it's hard to gauge the number of soldiers who've developed a substance problem. Young soldiers especially, says Dr. Trafton, tend not to seek treatment unless pushed by family members. Left to their own devices, "usually people don't show up for treatment till much later."
The anecdotal information, however, suggests there may be a wave of new patients coming, and it will include many heroin users.
Original Posner article in the Daily Beast:
(At Bagram, according to a written statement provided by an Army spokesperson for the base, the "Military Police receive few reports of alcohol or drug issues.")
In conversations with Army officials, it becomes clear that the true extent of the heroin problem among American soldiers now serving in Afghanistan, and Iraq, is unknown. The military keeps statistics only on how many troops failed drug tests, as George Wright noted when he cited the zero-positive results in "deployed soldiers." But it turns out that that better information on long-term addiction comes not from the Army but from the U.S. Veterans Administration. The VA is the world's largest provider of substance-abuse services, caring for more than 350,000 veterans with these issues per year. Ten percent of those are opiate addicts; alcohol and prescription drug abuse are the dominant problems. Only preliminary information for Iraq and Afghanistan is available. Veterans of those conflicts are not yet showing up in large numbers. According to the VA's 2008 report on substance abuse, 22,024 veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) sought treatment for substance abuse of all kinds at the VA. That was double the number of just two years earlier.
The anecdotal information from some at the VA suggests there may be a wave of new patients coming. Although not yet in the government's official statistics, reports of overpacked methadone clinics indicate future VA patients have already returned in large numbers. Experts think it can take up to a decade for the true scope of the problem to emerge.
"We're just starting to get a lot of Gulf War veterans," says Dr. Jodie Trafton, a health-care specialist with the VA's Center for Health Care Evaluation in Menlo Park, California. Young soldiers, says Trafton, tend not to seek treatment unless urged to do so by their family. "It's when they are still doing it and their friends stop that they show up for care. We tend to get people later rather than earlier, and we are doing as much as possible to push screening."
Meanwhile, E! News has obtained a search warrant affidavit unsealed today in Houston that quotes Los Angeles County Coroner's officials as saying Jackson had lethal levels of propofol in his system when he died.
a search warrant affidavit unsealed Monday in Houston. The affidavit, in its "statement of probable cause," quotes Los Angeles County Coroner's Office officials as saying the pop star's body contained lethal levels of propofol when he died, according to a copy obtained by The Daily Beast.
According to Murray's account, Jackson was having trouble sleeping the night of June 24. Noticing that the Moonwalker was forming what he believed was an addiction, the doctor claimed he had been trying to wean him off propofol for some time with little success and, as a result, initially withheld the drug traditionally used only in hospitals and monitored by an anesthesiologist.
Instead, he gave Jackson the milder sedative Valium at 1:30 a.m. With Jackson still awake, he next tried giving him a shot of lorazepam at 2 a.m. followed by midazolam. When those failed to have any effect, Murray said he then decided to give him 25 milligrams of propofol, which induced sleep right away.
But in perhaps the affidavit's biggest bombshell, the cardiologist admitted to detectives that he left Jackson alone to go make phone calls to his Houston office and family members. When he returned, Murray found Jackson had stopped breathing. He immediately began performing CPR as one of the entertainer's employees dialed 911.
According to the affidavit, Murray told authorities that Jackson was having trouble sleeping the night of June 24. Believing that Jackson was developing an addiction to propofol, Murray said he had been trying to wean him off the powerful anesthesia for some time, but with little success. He even initially withheld using the drug.
The affidavit says that on the night Jackson died, Murray administered the milder Valium at 1:30 a.m. With Jackson still awake, he next tried giving him an injection of lorazepam at 2 a.m. followed by midazolam, an extra short-acting benzodiazepine derivative used for insomnia. When those failed to put Jackson to sleep, according to the affidavit, Murray said he then administered 25 milligrams of propofol, which instantly put Jackson out.
The cardiologist, according to the affidavit, told detectives he left Jackson alone to go to the bathroom for a few minutes and even made phone calls to his Houston office and family members. When Murray returned, he found Jackson had stopped breathing. He immediately began performing CPR as one of the entertainer's employees dialed 911.
According to TMZ, Brittany's mom discovered her unconscious in the shower. When paramedics arrived, they quickly determined Murphy was in full cardiac arrest and immediately administered CPR. The paramedics continued CPR en route to the hospital, but Murphy was unresponsive.
Posner's Daily Beast story:
Paramedics quickly determined Murphy was in full cardiac arrest and immediately administered CPR. They worked on Murphy on a stretcher. Staples watched as they pumped her chest in a vain effort to revive her. The paramedics continued CPR en route to the hospital, but Murphy never responded.