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Gerald Posner Plagiarized in Why America Slept and Secrets of the Kingdom, Research Shows

In this week's Miami New Times, we write about new evidence that Gerald Posner plagiarized dozens of passages in his 2003 book Why American Slept and in 2005's Secrets of the Kingdom. After the jump, you can check out all the proof. But first, a little background:

Back on March 16, Miami New Times first published evidence that the Miami Beach writer Gerald Posner had plagiarized eight sections in his 2009 book Miami Babylon from Frank Owen's 2003 work, Clubland.

Posner, the author of 11 books including a Pulitzer finalist, had already resigned from the Daily Beast website after stories by Slate's Jack Shafer proved he'd lifted material from the Miami Herald and elsewhere.

Then, with the help of Greg Gelembiuk, a doctoral student who began researching Posner's work after Shafer's first story, we published on April 1 another 16 instances of stolen text in Miami Babylon.

Posner has offered a variety of defenses. He apologized after Shafer's stories and blamed the "warp speed of the Net" for screwing up his Beast stories. He told us this past May 16 that a new system of "trailing endnotes" may have caused problems in Babylon. By our third story, Posner said there was a "concerted effort" afoot to "discredit" his work.

Now comes new evidence, again courtesy of Gelembiuk. The 48-year-old Wisconsin student purchased ebook copies of Why America Slept and Secrets of the Kingdom, and ran them through Viper, a free online plagiarism software.

The program found Posner had taken from 24 sources in the two books. Most egregious seems to be his theft from a 1998 book by David Hoffman called The Oklahoma City Bombing and the Politics of Terror. Posner appears to have lifted three passages from the book totaling 927 words in Why America Slept.

Click through for a full accounting on the problems, including evidence Posner tried to edit his own Wikipedia page's section on his plagiarism problems.

Posner does not cite Hoffman's book in "Why America Slept" in the end notes or in the bibliography. We shared these passages with Roy Peter Clark, a senior scholar and plagiarism expert at St. Petersburg's Poynter Institute.

"This constitutes plagiarism by any definition I can think of," he said."The capturing of someone else's material that is this extensive cannot, in my opinion, have been done accidentally."

Here's the first passage from Hoffman's book, which you can read online in full here. This section begins on page 219 in the PDF version of the book.

This was followed by another terrorist conference at the Northwest Frontier Province town of Konli, near the Afghani border in Pakistan on July 10-15, 1996. The meeting saw some of the most important militant Islamic leaders come together under one tent. They included Osama bin Ladin, a Saudi Arabian who funded the Mujahadeen, was implicated in the Riyadh and Dhahran bombings, and was a close associate of Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman, Ahmed Jibril of the PFLP-GC (who carried out the Pan Am 103 bombing on orders from Teheran), Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, a senior representative of Iranian intelligence, senior Pakistani intelligence officers, and senior commanders of Hamas, HizbAllah, and other groups. All resolved to use whatever force was necessary to oust all foreign forces stationed on Islamic holy land.[595]

One Arab observer with direct knowledge of the conference said the participants' resolution was "a virtual declaration of relentless war" on the U.S.-led West.[596] A glimpse of that conference can be seen in Defense and Foreign Affairs:

Rasul Sayyaf stated that "the time to settle accounts has arrived." The senior representative of Iranian intelligence declared that "attack is the best means of defense." He urged a combined offensive, both in the Muslim world, particularly the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula, and at the heart of the West. He repeated Iran's commitment to the cause and reiterated Tehran's willingness to provide the Islamists with all possible aid.

Another commander concurred, adding that "there is an imperative need for an integrated plan to deal a fatal blow to the international forces of arrogance." A UK-based commander from a Persian Gulf state stressed that given the immense strategic importance of the Persian Gulf to the U.S. and its allies, the only way to compel the West to withdraw was through the infliction of so much pain on these countries, that their governments would find it impossible to tolerate the public outcry and be compelled to withdraw as the only way to stop the Islamist terrorism at home.[597] On July 16, one day after the Konli conference, the U.S. Senate passed sanctions against Iran and Libya. With their continued sanctions against the innocent civilians of Iraq, and now Iran, the U.S. was building to a confrontation with the militant Islamic community. As Ronald W. Lewis wrote in the November, 1996 edition of Air Forces Monthly:

On the following day (after the Konli conference), July 17, the Movement for Islamic Change sent a chilling fax to the London-based Arab newspaper al-Hayat, warning: "The world will be astonished and amazed at the time and place chosen by the Mujahadeen. The Mujahadeen will deliver the harshest reply to the threats of the foolish American president. Everyone will be surprised by the volume, choice of place and timing of the Mujahadeen's answer, and invaders must prepare to depart alive or dead, for their time is morning and morning is near." That fax, and a warning by Israeli intelligence that Iran was likely to launch an attack against a U.S. aircraft, were ignored.

At 8:31:10 p.m. (0031:10 GMT) that evening, nobody could dismiss the horrendous explosion of TWA Flight 800 off the coast of Long Island, New York.

Here is Posner on page 111 of "Why America Slept":

The Tehran terror conference was followed by another terrorist summit at the Pakistani town of Konli, near the Afghan border, from July 10 to 15, 1996. This again brought some of the most important militant Islamic leaders together under one tent. They included Osama bin Laden and Ahmed Jibril of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, who some in the CIA believe to this day carried out the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing on orders from Tehran. Jibril arrived with Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, a senior representative of Iranian intelligence. Also present were half a dozen senior officers from ISI, as well as senior commanders of Hamas, Hezbol- lah, and other radical groups. All resolved to use whatever force was necessary to oust all foreign forces stationed on Islamic holy land.

One Arab observer with direct knowledge of the conference said the participants' resolution was "a virtual declaration of relentless war" on the U.S.-led West. Unknown to the participants, one of the Pakistani intelligence agents made an audio recording of the proceedings. It took nearly four months for the CIA to obtain a poor-quality copy.

From that tape, the Agency learned that Rasul Sayyaf had warned, "The time to settle accounts has arrived." The senior repre- sentative of Iranian intelligence declared that "attack is the best means of defense." He urged a combined offensive, both in the Muslim world, particularly the Persian Gulf and Ara- bian Peninsula, and at the heart of the West. He repeated Iran's commitment to the cause and reiterated Tehran's willingness to provide the Islamists with all possible aid.

Another commander concurred, adding that "there is an imperative need for an integrated plan to deal a fatal blow to the international forces of arrogance." A U.K.-based funda- mentalist stressed that, given the immense strategic impor- tance of the Persian Gulf to the U.S. and its allies, the only way to compel the West to abandon the Gulf was through the infliction of so much pain that their governments would find it impossible to tolerate the public outcry and be forced to withdraw.

On July 16, 1996, a day after the Konli conference, the U.S. Senate ended weeks of debate by passing sanctions against Iran and Libya. On the day of the vote, the Movement for Islamic Change sent a fax to the London-based Arab newspaper al-Hayat, warning: "The world will be aston- ished and amazed at the time and place chosen by the Muja- hedeen. The Mujahedeen will deliver the harshest reply to the threats of the foolish American president. Everyone will be surprised by the volume, choice of place and timing of the Mujahedeen's answer, and invaders must prepare to depart alive or dead, for their time is morning and morning is near." That fax, and a warning on July 18 by Israeli intelligence that Iran was likely to launch an attack against a U.S. aircraft, were ignored by the CIA, which did not even initially create a separate file for the Konli conference, nor pass along the Israeli warning to other government agencies.

The following day, July 17, 1996, at 8:30 P.M., a TWA Boeing 747 exploded only minutes after takeoff from JFK airport in New York City.

Here's another passage from Hoffman's work. It appears on page 208 of the PDF.

Interestingly, two Middle Eastern men were spotted driving from Oklahoma City to Dallas immediately after the bombing. The men stopped to ask directions from an Oklahoma Highway Patrolman. When the officer ran their plate, he discovered that it didn't match the vehicle. The plate belonged to a rented blue Chevy Cavalier, which was later found at a motel in Oklahoma City. The driver of that vehicle, Asad R. Siddiqy, a cab driver from Queens, along with the other two men, Anis Siddiqy and Mohammed Chafi, were taken into custody.

And here's Posner on page 85 of "Why America Slept":

Meanwhile, two Middle Eastern men were spotted driving from Oklahoma City to Dallas within hours of the bombing. The men stopped to ask directions from an Oklahoma highway patrolman. When the officer ran their plate, he discovered that it didn't match the vehicle. The plate belonged to a rented blue Chevy Cavalier, the very description of a car that at least two witnesses were then telling FBI agents in Oklahoma City that they had seen near the Murrah Building that morning. Asad R. Siddiqy, a cabdriver from Queens, along with the other two men, Anis Siddiqy and Mohammed Chafi, were taken into custody.

This is the final long passage from Hoffman's book, which appears on page 208 of the PDF.

Gary Lewis, a pressman for the Journal Record newspaper, had just stepped outside to smoke his pipe when he remembered he had left something in his car. As he walked down the alley, a yellow Mercury peeled away from its spot near the Murrah Building, jumped a concrete barricade, swerved to avoid hitting a dumpster, then bore down on him, forcing him up onto the curb. Lewis got a good look at the driver, describing him as one Timothy James McVeigh, and his passenger as resembling the sketch of John Doe 2. He said the car had an Oklahoma tag which was dangling by one bolt.

Several minutes later, Lewis was thrown to the floor as the Journal Record building rocked with the impact of the blast. As he picked himself up, another, more powerful explosion sent him sprawling again. As he and his fellow workers rushed outside, he noticed a peculiar sight: an Arab man standing nearby, staring at the Federal Building, grinning from ear to ear.

"It unnerved me," said Lewis, who described how the man seemed out of place among the throng of battered and bloody people. He seemed "enraptured."

As discussed earlier, another witness saw two men running from the area of the Federal Building toward a brown Chevy truck just prior to the blast. The witness described the two men as "males, of possible Middle-Eastern descent, approximately six feet tall, with athletic builds."....

A few blocks away from the Murrah Building, Debra Burdick and her daughter were on the way to the doctor's office. As she stopped for a light at 10th and Robinson, she noticed three vehicles parked on the north side of the street between a church and a garage. One was a brown pick-up, one was a blue Chevy Cavalier, and the other was a yellow Mercury. "I looked across," said Burdick, "and there was that light blue car, it had a white interior, and there were three men in it. They were dark, but they were not black... I would say they were Middle Easterners. There was a brown pick-up, but I couldn't see in (because of the tinted windows), and behind it was the yellow car with the cream top.

"Now, I noticed the three men in the car, that guy sitting in the middle was kind of staring out.... I said 'Huh, I wonder what they're looking at?' and as I turned around, I said 'there's nothing there but buildings."

Here is Posner's passage, on page 86:

Gary Lewis, a pressman for the Oklahoma City Journal Record, told FBI agents that he had stepped outside to smoke his pipe when he remembered he had left something in his car. As he walked down an adjacent alley, a yellow Mercury peeled away from its spot near the Murrah Building, jumped a concrete barricade, swerved to avoid hitting a dumpster, then bore down on him, forcing him up onto the curb (when McVeigh was arrested, he was driving a light yellow Mercury Marquis). Several minutes later, back in his office, Lewis was thrown to the floor as the building rocked from the blast's impact. As he and his fellow workers rushed outside, he noticed a peculiar sight: an Arab man standing nearby, staring at the smoldering federal building, grinning from ear to ear.

Another witness told crime scene investigators that he saw two men running from the area of the Murrah Building toward a brown Chevy pickup truck just prior to the blast. He described the two men, both with beards, as "possibly [of] Middle-Eastern descent, approximately six feet tall, with athletic builds."

A few blocks away from ground zero, Debra Burdick and her daughter had been on their way to the doctor's office. As she stopped for a light at 10th and Robinson, her attention was diverted by three vehicles. One was a blue Chevy Cavalier, the type of car investigators thought might be connected to the three Arabs detained while driving to Dallas.

"I looked across," Burdick told agents, "and there was that light blue car, it had a white interior, and there were three men in it. They were dark, but they were not black.... I would say they were Middle Easterners.... Now, I noticed the three men in the car, that guy sitting in the middle was kind of staring out.... I said, 'Huh, I wonder what they're looking at?' and as I turned around, I said, 'There's nothing there but buildings.'"

Gelembiuk's review also turned up eleven other sources that look to have been stolen from without any citation by Posner. The source's are hyperlinked to the original story. Here they are:

The Progressive, August, 1995:

In the statue's shadow stood three turbaned, bearded men smiling and waving, as one held a bomb and the others burned an American flag. The cartoonist modified Emma Lazarus's famous poem to read: "Give us your tired, your poor, your huddled masses, your terrorists, your slime, your evil cowards, your religious fanatics . . ."

"Why America Slept," pg 92:

In the statue's shadow stood three turbaned, bearded men smiling and waving as one held a bomb and the others burned an American flag. The cartoonist had modified Emma Lazarus's poem to read: "Give us your tired, your poor, your huddled masses, your terrorists, your slime, your evil cowards, your religious fanatics ..."

New York Times August 27, 1999:

Mr. Baz fired on the passenger side of the van, blowing out its windows and striking four students, as it was slowly turning on the ramp that leads from the Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive onto the Brooklyn Bridge.

"Why America Slept," pg 75:

Baz shot at the van's passenger side, blowing out its windows and striking four students as it was slowly turning on the ramp that leads from the FDR Drive to the Brooklyn Bridge.

New York Review of Books March 14, 2002:

Professor Thomas Tullius (chair of the chemistry department at Boston University), who examined--with full access--the bombed-out remains of al-Shifa. His meticulous investigation found no trace whatsoever of EMPTA, the chemical whose supposed presence at al-Shifa served as the only publicly proffered forensic evidence that the pharmaceutical facility was manufacturing deadly VX nerve gas.

"Why America Slept," pg 136:

... Professor Thomas Tullius (chair of the Chemistry Department at Boston University) examined--with full access--the bombed-out remains of al-Shifa. He found no trace whatsoever of EMPTA, the chemical whose supposed presence at al-Shifa served as the forensic evidence that the pharmaceutical facility was manufacturing banned VX nerve gas.

AP May 14, 2004:

Federal regulators fined Riggs Bank a record $25 million on Thursday for allegedly violating anti-money laundering laws in its handling of tens of millions in cash transactions in Saudi-controlled accounts under investigation for possible links to terrorism financing.

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg 177:

... federal regulators fined Riggs a record $25 million for a "willful, systemic" violation of anti-money-laundering law, specifically its handling of tens of millions in cash transactions in Saudi-controlled accounts under investigation for possible links to terrorism financing.

St. Petersberg Times September 27, 2001:

In April 2000, Alhamzi shows up at the National Air College Flight School in San Diego. He wants to fly a plane. But the school questions his limited knowledge of English and he gets only one lesson. May 2000: Alhamzi is joined in San Diego by al-Midhar. They ask about learning to fly Boeing jets at Sorbi's Flying Club in San Diego. They're told they must master Cessnas and Pipers first. "You can't just jump right into Boeings," the instructor says. "You have to start slower." When the instructor takes them up, al-Midhar has trouble with the basics. At times, he becomes afraid and prays to Allah."

"Why America Slept" pg 147:

In April 2000, Nawaf Alhazmi turned up at the National Air College Flight School in San Diego. He wanted to fly a plane. But a school instructor questioned his limited English and he got only one lesson.
In May, Alhazmi was joined in San Diego by Khalid al-Midhar. When they asked about learning to fly Boeing jets at Sorbi's Flying Club in San Diego, they were dejected when told they must first master Cessnas and Pipers. "You can't just jump right into Boeings," the instructor said. "You have to start slower." When the instructor took them aloft, al-Midhar had trouble with rudimentary procedures. At times, he was so nervous that he prayed to Allah.

From the same story:

Dec. 21, 2000: Atta and al-Shehhi are issued pilot licenses Dec. 29, 2000: Atta and al-Shehhi cross the state to Opa-Locka, just north of Miami, for a dry run on a simulator for big jets. At SimCenter Inc., each spends three hours on a full-motion 727 simulator. They concentrate on turns. Each pays $1,500, cash.

Why America Slept, pg 147

On December 21, 2000, Atta and al-Shehhi were issued pilot licenses....Atta and al-Shehhi meanwhile crossed the state to Opa-Locka, north of Miami, where they had reserved time on a big jet simulator at SimCenter Inc. Each spent three hours on a full-motion 727 simulator. They concentrated on turns, not landing or taking off. Each paid $1,500 cash.

New York Times, April 21, 1995:

He checked into O'Hare International Airport in Chicago on Wednesday night for a flight to Rome, with connections for a flight to Amman, Jordan. In addition to fitting the suspect profile, he was dressed in a jogging suit similar to one that a witness in Oklahoma City had reported seeing worn by a man at the scene of the explosion.

"Why America Slept," pg 84:

Ahmed had checked in at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport on Wednesday night, less than 12 hours after the blast, for a flight to Rome with connections to Jordan. In addition to fitting the suspect profile, he was dressed in a jogging suit similar to one that a witness in Oklahoma City had reported seeing worn by a man near the scene of the explosion.

BBC News March 15, 2002:

According to the al-Eqtisadiah daily, firemen confronted police after they tried to keep the girls inside ... One witness said he saw three policemen "beating young girls to prevent them from leaving the school because they were not wearing the abaya.

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg 34:

"According to a Saudi newspaper, al-Eqtisadiah, firemen confronted police as they tried to keep the girls inside. One witness saw three policemen "beating young girls to prevent them from leaving the school because they were not wearing the abaya."

Salon September 13, 2001:

"The national media didn't pay attention," Hart says. One senior reporter from a well-known publication told one of Hart's fellow commissioners, "This isn't important, none of this is ever going to happen," Hart says.

Why America Slept pg 153:

"The national media just didn't pay attention," Hart says. One senior reporter from a well-known publication told one of Hart's fellow commissioners, "This isn't important, none of this is ever going to happen," Hart recalls.

New York Times, October 21 2001:

And while the nation was having a good laugh at the expense of Florida's hanging chads and butterfly ballots, Mohamed Atta and Marwan al-Shehhi were there, in Florida, learning to drive commercial jetliners.

"Why America Slept," pg 149:

And while the country enjoyed a good laugh at the expense of Florida's butterfly ballots and hanging chads, Mohamed Atta and Marwan al-Shehhi remained in Florida learning to fly jetliners.

Human Events, September 30 2002:

On April 10, 1993, agents of the Iraqi Intelligence Service handed the keys of this death mobile to a team of specially recruited operatives. On April 13, under cover of darkness, some of these operatives started up the vehicle and began a secret trek across the southern Iraqi desert toward the Kuwaiti frontier. Their intended target: George Herbert Walker Bush, just-retired President of the United States.

"Why America Slept," pg 61:

On April 10, 1993, agents of the Iraqi Intelligence Service handed the keys of a Toyota Land Cruiser that was packed with plastic explosives to a specially recruited team. On April 13, under cover of darkness, these operatives began a secret trek across the southern Iraqi desert toward the Kuwaiti frontier. Their target was the just retired ex- president, George Bush ..."

And from the same article:

The Clinton Administration later briefly balked at Kuwait's claim that Saddam had tried to assassinate Bush. But a thorough probe by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency, bolstered by detailed confessions from two key Iraqi operatives, sealed the case.

"Why America Slept," pg 61:

The Clinton administration later briefly balked at Kuwait's claim that Iraq was behind the assassination attempt. But a thorough probe by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency, confirmed by detailed confessions from two key Iraqi operatives, sealed the case.

AP June 20 2002:

The marshal's warning explained that Islamic extremists had issued a fatwa ... because of an episode at the end of the World Trade Center bombing trial in which deputy marshals accidentally stepped on a copy of the Koran during a scuffle. "Allegedly, the fatwa is being disseminated to persons in the United States who have the capability to carry it out,'' the memo said. The terrorists could be suicide bombers who may ``target as many victims as possible and draw as much media coverage as possible,'' it added. ``Once the press is on the scene the new plans call for blowing up everyone.

"Why America Slept," pg 82:

The Marshals Service concluded that Islamic extremists had issued their fatwa because of an episode at the end of the World Trade Center bombing trial in which some deputy marshals stepped on a copy of the Koran during a scuffle. ... "Allegedly, the fatwa is being disseminated to persons in the United States who have the capability to carry it out," the memo continued. "The terrorists could be suicide bombers who may target as many victims as possible and draw as much media coverage as possible. Once the press is on the scene the new plans call for blowing up everyone.

From the same story:

U.S. intelligence monitored a series of meetings and conferences between senior officials of Iran, Syria, Hezbollah and other terror organizations in mid-February 1995 in which the subject of killing Americans on U.S. soil came up, officials said. During these conferences, known terrorists made specific mention of Congress and the White House as ``institutions that are great enemies of the Islamist movement,''

"Why America Slept," pg 82:

U.S. intelligence had monitored a several-day conference between senior terrorists from Iran, Syria, and Hezbollah in mid-February 1995 in which the subject of killing Americans on U.S. soil was discussed. During these meetings, known terrorists specifically mentioned Congress and the White House as "institutions that are great enemies of the Islamist movement."

From that story again:

John Gannon, former deputy CIA director for intelligence under President Clinton, said spring 1995 was one of a handful of periods in the 1990s when intelligence on terror threats peaked ...

"Why America Slept," pg 82:

John Gannon, former deputy CIA director for intelligence under President Clinton, recalled that that spring of 1995 was one of a handful of periods in the decade when intelligence on terror threats peaked ...

Gelembiuk's review of Posner's work also turned up twelve sources that Posner does cite in his two books, but that he takes extensive language from without using quote marks to indicate that he didn't write the passages.

As the 2003 edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers notes "Presenting an author's exact wording without marking it as a quotation is plagiarism, even if you cite the source."

Here are those cases, again hyperlinked to the original stories:

St Petersberg Times, July 21, 2002:

At Herfy's, a Saudi-owned chain of fast-food restaurants, the booths in the "family section" are curtained. That way women can eat without being seen by male customers. When parents in Riyadh want to take their kids out for an evening of fun, the men might head to the kingdom's only ice skating rink. No women are allowed ...

Even marriage ceremonies, typically held in rented wedding halls, are segregated. The groom enjoys dinner with his male friends and relatives in one room, while the bride and her female guests dine and dance in another.

The only time bride and groom get together is to pose for wedding pictures with the immediate family. Saudi women have far fewer rights than men. They can't drive or travel abroad without a husband's permission. Daughters can inherit only half as much as sons, and a woman's testimony is given only half the weight of a man's in court.

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg. 31:

At Herfy's, a Saudi-owned chain of fast-food restaurants, the booths in the "family section" are curtained so women can eat without being seen by male customers.

When parents in Riyadh take their children out for an evening, the men might head to the country's only ice-skating rink. No women are allowed. Even marriage ceremonies, usually held in rented wedding halls, are segregated. The groom enjoys dinner with his male friends and relatives in one room, while the bride and her female guests dine and dance in another. Bride and groom only get together to pose for wedding pictures with their families.

Saudi women can't travel abroad without a husband's permission. Daughters can inherit only half as much as sons, and a woman's testimony is given only half the weight of a man's in court.

"Who Really Wants to Invade Saudi Arabia, and Why?," Center for Research on Globalization, July 2004:

... Robert Tucker, US intelligence and military analyst, wrote an article for Commentary magazine, owned by the Jewish American Committee, entitled Oil: The Issue of American Intervention.

Tucker stated that, "without intervention there is a distinct possibility of an economic and political disaster bearing resemblance to the disaster of 1930s The Arab shoreline of the Gulf is a new El Dorado waiting for its conquistadors." And this was followed in February of the same year by an article in Harper's Magazine by a Pentagon analyst using a pseudonym, Miles Ignotus, emphasizing the need for the US to seize Saudi oilfields, installations and airports ...

Further, in August of 1975, a report entitled, Oil Fields as Military Objectives: A Feasibility Study, was produced for the Committee on Foreign Relations. In this report, the CRS stated that potential targets for the US included Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Venezuela, Libya, and Nigeria. Analysis indicates [that military forces of OPEC countries were] quantitatively and qualitatively inferior [and] could be swiftly crushed.

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg 120:

Robert Tucker, a U.S. intelligence and military analyst, wrote an article for Commentary magazine, owned by the Jewish American Committee, titled "Oil: The Issue of American Intervention." Tucker contended that "without intervention there is a distinct possibility of an economic and political disaster bearing . . . resemblance to the disaster of [the] 1930s. . . . The Arab shoreline of the Gulf is a new El Dorado waiting for its conquistadors." And this was followed in February by an article called "Seizing Arab Oil" in Harper's, written by a Pentagon analyst using a pseudonym, Miles Ignotus. He argued that there was an urgent need to seize Saudi oil fields, installations, and airports.

Further, in August 1975, a study titled "Oil Fields as Military Objectives: A Feasibility Study," was produced for the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. It concluded that potential targets for the U.S. included Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Venezuela, Libya, and Nigeria. "Analysis indicates . . . [that military forces of OPEC countries are] quantitatively and qualitatively inferior [and] could be swiftly crushed.

New York Times, September 17 2003:

According to a summary of the meeting written by a Hamas official, Mr. Mishaal and other Hamas representatives thanked their Saudi hosts for continuing "to send aid to the people through the civilian and popular channels, despite all the American pressures exerted on them."

Secrets of the Kingdom pg 180:

According to a summary of the meeting written by a Hamas official, Mishaal and other Hamas representatives thanked their Saudi hosts for continuing "to send aid to the people through the civilian and popular channels, despite all the American pressures exerted on them ..."

From the same story:

At least 50 percent of Hamas's current operating budget of about $10 million a year comes from people in Saudi Arabia, according to estimates by American law enforcement officials, American diplomats in the Middle East and Israeli officials. After the attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, the Saudi portion of Hamas financing grew larger as donations from the United States, Europe and other Persian Gulf countries dried up ...

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg 180:

At least 50 percent of Hamas's current operating budget of about $10 million a year comes from Saudi contributions, according to estimates by American law enforcement officials, diplomats in the Middle East, and Israeli officials. After 9/11, the Saudi portion of Hamas funding actually grew as donations from America, Europe, and other Persian Gulf countries dried up.

National Review Online, December 17 2001:

In late May, independent counsel Kenneth Starr had convicted Jim and Susan McDougal and Jim Guy Tucker in the first big Whitewater trial; in June, the Filegate story first broke into public view, and Sen. Alphonse D'Amato issued his committee's Whitewater report recommending that several administration officials be investigated for perjury.

It was also in June that the White House went into full battle mode against a variety of allegations contained in Unlimited Access, a book by former FBI agent Gary Aldrich."

Why America Slept pg 109:

In late May, independent counsel Kenneth Starr had convicted Jim and Susan McDougal and Jim Guy Tucker in connection with the first large Whitewater trial; in June, the Filegate story first broke publicly, and Senator Al D'Amato's committee issued its Whitewater report recommending that several administration officials be investigated for perjury.

Also in June, the White House went on the defensive from scurrilous, and mostly unproven, allegations contained in Unlimited Access, a book by former FBI agent Gary Aldrich.

From the same story:

... in the Khobar investigation. Morris found that the number of people who believed Clinton was "doing all he can to investigate the Saudi bombing and punish those responsible" was just 54 percent, while 32 percent believed he could do more. Morris feared that White House inaction would allow Dole to portray Clinton as soft on national security. "We tested two alternative defenses to this attack: Peace maker or Toughness," Morris wrote in a memo for the president. In the "Peacemaker" defense, Morris asked voters to respond to the statement, "Clinton is peacemaker. Brought together Arabs and Israelis. Ireland. Bosnia cease fire. Uses strength to bring about peace." The other defense, "Toughness," asked voters to respond to "Clinton tough. Stands up for American interests. Against foreign companies doing business in Cuba. Sanctions against Iran. Anti-terrorist legislation held up by Republicans. Prosecuted World Trade Center bombers." Morris found that the public greatly preferred "Toughness." So Clinton talked tough.

Why America Slept pg 113:

... handling of the Khobar investigation. The number who believed Clinton was "doing all he can to investigate the Saudi bombing and punish those responsible" was down to 54 percent, while 32 percent believed he could do more. Morris feared that further White House inaction would create a chance for Dole to carve out an issue portraying Clinton as soft on national security. "We tested two alternative defenses to this attack, 'Peace-maker' or 'Toughness,' " Morris wrote in a memo to the president. For the "Peacemaker" thesis, Morris asked voters to respond to the statement, "Clinton is peacemaker. Brought together Arabs and Israelis. Ireland. Bosnia ceasefire. Uses strength to bring about peace." The other position was presented as "Toughness. Clinton tough. Stands up for American interests. Against foreign companies doing business in Cuba. Sanctions against Iran. Anti-terrorist legislation held up by Republicans. Prosecuted World Trade Center bombers." People overwhelmingly preferred the "tough" view. "So Clinton talked tough," recalled Morris.

Business Week, October 15, 2001:

But he also gave $6 million to Palestinians thrown out of work by the intifada, and he helped reconstruct Lebanese power plants destroyed by the Israeli air force.

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg 156:

He also gave $6 million to Palestinians thrown out of work by the Intifada, and helped reconstruct Lebanese power plants destroyed by the Israeli air force.

U.S. News & World Report, December 7, 2003:

... these were not charities in the sense that Americans understand the term. The Muslim World League and the IIRO, for example, are overseen by the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia, the kingdom's highest religious authority. They receive substantial funds from the government and members of the royal family and make use of the Islamic affairs offices of Saudi embassies abroad. The Muslim World League's current secretary general, Abdullah Al-Turki, served as the kingdom's minister of Islamic affairs for six years. "The Muslim World League, which is the mother of IIRO, is a fully government-funded organization," the IIRO's Canadian head testified in a 1999 court case. "In other words, I work for the government of Saudi Arabia."

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg 167:

These are not charities in the sense that Americans understand the term. The Muslim World League and the International Islamic Relief Organization (IIRO), for example, are overseen by the grand mufti, the Kingdom's highest religious authority. Both the government and royals substantially fund them, and they utilize the Islamic affairs offices of Saudi embassies abroad. "The Muslim World League, which is the mother of IIRO, is a fully government-funded organization," the IIRO's Canadian chief testified in a 1999 court case. "In other words, I work for the government of Saudi Arabia."

Newsweek, April 12, 2004:

The probe also has uncovered large wire transfers overseas by the Saudi ambassador to the United States, Prince Bandar bin Sultan. The transactions recently prompted the Saudi Embassy's longtime bank, the Riggs Bank of Washington, D.C., to drop the Saudis as a client after embassy officials were "unable to provide an explanation that was satisfying," says a source familiar with the discussions.

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg 177:

The probe also has uncovered large wire transfers overseas by the Saudi ambassador to the United States, Prince Bandar bin Sultan. The transactions recently prompted the Saudi embassy's longtime bank, the Riggs Bank of Washington, D.C., to drop the Saudis as a client after embassy officials were "unable to provide an explanation that was satisfying," says a source familiar with the discussions. ...

Washington Post, January 20, 2002:

At a Jan. 10 meeting in the Tank, the secure conference room of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, President-elect Bush and his defense team took their first briefing from Gen. Henry H. Shelton, the chairman, and the four service chiefs.

"Why America Slept," pg 152:

In a January 10, 2001, meeting in the Tank, the secure conference room of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, President-elect Bush and his defense team met the Joint Chiefs for their first complete briefing.

Business Week, 1995:

By 1989, Alwaleed was snapping up shares of Citicorp, Chase Manhattan, Manufacturers Hanover and Chemical, sometimes calling in buy orders from a cellular phone while horseback riding in the desert. Within months, he had spent close to $250 million--at one point holding a 2.3% stake in Chase."

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg 150:

He began acquiring shares of Chase Manhattan, Citibank, Manufacturers Hanover, and Chemical Bank. Sometimes he called in buy orders from a cellular phone while horseback riding in the desert. Within months, he had spent close to $250 million--at one point owning 2.3 percent of Chase.

Middle East Intelligence Bulletin September 2002:

Al-Walid was born in 1957 to Prince Talal bin Abdulaziz, one of the many sons of the late King Abdulaziz, and Mona al-Solh, the daughter of Lebanon's first post-independence prime minister, Riad al-Solh.

"Secrets of the Kingdom," pg 147:

Al-Waleed was born in 1957 to Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz, one of the many sons of the late King Ibn Saud, and Mona al-Solh, the daughter of Lebanon's first postindependence prime minister, Riad al-Solh.

From the same story:

During his stay in Cairo, he declared himself a socialist and broadcast anti-Saudi radio propaganda, earning the nickname "the Red Prince."

Secrets of the Kingdom, page 148:

He left for Cairo, where he declared himself a socialist and broadcast anti-Saudi radio propaganda, earning the nickname "the Red Prince."

Same story:

Days later, in an interview with a Saudi newspaper, Al-Walid blamed Giuliani's decision on "Jewish pressures."

Secrets of the Kingdom pg 156:

Days later, in an interview with a Saudi newspaper, he blamed Giuliani's decision on "Jewish pressures."

Same story:

By April 1998, after Citicorp announced plans to merge with Travelers, the value of Al-Walid's stake in the company (now called Citigroup) had climbed to $7.6 billion.

Secrets of the Kingdom pg 151:

By April 1998, after Citibank announced plans to merge with Travelers, the value of Al-Waleed's under-$1-billion stake in the company (now called Citigroup) had climbed to $7.6 billion.

Jane's Intelligence Review, as quoted in The Economist May 27 2004:

At any one time, there are up to 30,000 guards protecting the Kingdom's oil infrastructure, while high-technology surveillance and aircraft patrols are common at the most important facilities and anti-aircraft installations defend key locations. 

Secrets of the Kingdom pg 132:

... at any one time there are up to thirty thousand guards protecting the Kingdom's oil infrastructure, while high-technology surveillance, common at the most important facilities and antiaircraft installations, defends key locations.

Time, September 15, 2003:

One of the Administration's top counterterrorism officials says the Saudis still appear to be protecting charities associated with the royal family and its friends. He says the bank records of a charity suspected of being an al-Qaeda front mysteriously disappeared.

Secrets of the Kingdom pg 176:

American counterterrorism officials complained the Saudis still appeared to be protecting charities associated with the royal family and its friends. In one instance, the bank records of a charity suspected of being an al Qaeda front mysteriously disappeared.

WIKIPEDIA EDITS

Gelembiuk also presented New Times with evidence that Posner has been editing his own Wikipedia page's section about the plagiarism accusations against him.

According to Gelembiuk, Posner has used two handles on Wikipedia: miamikid and miamiskull.

Posner first added much of the biography on his page on Aug. 22, 2007, under the name miamikid. You can see his edits here, and the page before he edited it here.

In a summary about the edits (which doesn't appear on the page any longer), Gelembiuk says he wrote: "I am Gerald Posner. ANY TEXT COPIED AND PASTED FROM ANOTHER SITE IS ONLY FROM MY OWN, WWW.POSNER.COM, WHICH I WROTE! I have only added extra infor on the Wiki page"

On April 11, after New Times last story ran, Posner appears to have logged into Wikipedia as "miamiskull" to edit his plagiarism section. Posner uses the name "miamiskull" for his personal youtube page.

You can see his edits here. Essentially, he seems to remove a sentence about accusations that he'd "altered and misattributed" quotes.

Those revisions were undone, but "miamiskull" logged back in again on April 15 to make the same alterations. You can see those edits here.

After the changes were again edited out, "miamiskull" made one final attempt at editing the page on April 19, which you can check out here.

Gelembiuk contacted Wikipedia admins, who left a warning on miamiskull's home page to knock it off. Gelembiuk notes that Wikipedia's conflict of interest rules discourage editing articles for your own benefit:

From Wikipedia conflict of interest policy: "COI editing involves contributing to Wikipedia in order to promote your own interests or those of other individuals, companies, or groups."


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